Thursday, May 21, 2020
An enargia is aÃ rhetorical term for a visually powerful description that vividly recreates something or someone in words. According to Richard Lanham, the broader term energia (energetic expression) came early to overlap with enargia. . . . Perhaps it would make sense to use enargia as the basic umbrella term for the various special terms for vigorous ocular demonstration, and energia as a more general term for vigor and verve, of whatever sort, in expression. (A Handlist of Rhetorical Terms, 1991). Example fromÃ The Building in the Text George Puttenham [in The Arte of English Poesie] explains enargia as the glorious luster and light uniting the outward shew and the inward working of figurative language..., whereas Torquanto Tasso [in Discourses on the Art of Poetry] emphasizes the visibility implied by enargia.(Roy T. Eriksen, The Building in the Text. Penn State Press, 2001) Iagos Enargia in Shakespeares Othello What shall I say? Wheres satisfaction?It is impossible you should see this,Were they as prime as goats, as hot as monkeys,As salt as wolves in pride, and fools as grossAs ignorance made drunk. But yet, I say,If imputation and strong circumstances,Which lead directly to the door of truth,Will give you satisfaction, you may havet. . . .I do not like the office:But, sith I am enterd in this cause so far,Prickd tot by foolish honesty and love,I will go on. I lay with Cassio lately;And, being troubled with a raging tooth,I could not sleep.There are a kind of men so loose of soul,That in their sleeps will mutter their affairs:One of this kind is Cassio:In sleep I heard him say Sweet Desdemona,Let us be wary, let us hide our loves;And then, sir, would he gripe and wring my hand,Cry O sweet creature! and then kiss me hard,As if he pluckd up kisses by the rootsThat grew upon my lips: then laid his legOver my thigh, and sighd, and kissd; and thenCried Cursed fate that gave thee to the Moor!(Ia go in Act 3, scene 3 of Othello by William Shakespeare)When [Othello] threatens to turn his fury against Iago, as he spasmodically doubts his own torrents of doubt, Iago now lets loose upon the audience Shakespeares best rhetoric of enargia, in bringing the particulars of infidelity before Othellos, and thus the audiences, very eyes, first obliquely, then finally by his lie that implicates Desdemona in the lascivious movements and treacherous mutterings attributed to Cassio in his sleep.(Kenneth Burke, Othello: An Essay to Illustrate a Method. Essays Toward a Symbolic of Motives, 1950-1955, ed. by William H. Rueckert. Parlor Press, 2007) John Updikes Description In our kitchen, he would bolt his orange juice (squeezed on one of those ribbed glass sombreros and then poured off through a strainer) and grab a bite of toast (the toaster a simple tin box, a kind of little hut with slit and slanted sides, that rested over a gas burner and browned one side of the bread, in stripes, at a time), and then he would dash, so hurriedly that his necktie flew back over his shoulder, down through our yard, past the grapevines hung with buzzing Japanese-beetle traps, to the yellow brick building, with its tall smokestack and wide playing fields, where he taught.(John Updike, My Father on the Verge of Disgrace. Licks of Love: Short Stories and a Sequel, 2000) Gretel Ehrlichs Description Mornings, a transparent pane of ice lies over the meltwater. I peer through and see some kind of waterbug-perhaps a leech-paddling like a sea turtle between green ladders of lakeweed. Cattails and sweetgrass from the previous summer are bone dry, marked with black mold spots, and bend like elbows into the ice. They are swords that cut away the hard tenancy of winter. At the wide end a mat of dead waterplants has rolled back into a thick, impregnable breakwater. Near it, bubbles trapped under the ice are lenses focused straight up to catch the coming season.(Gretel Ehrlich, Spring. Antaeus, 1986) Etymology:From the Greek, visible, palpable, manifest Pronunciation: en-AR-gee-a Also Known As: enargeia, evidentia, hypotyposis, diatyposis
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
It is hard to place St. Augustine within just one of the levels of DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s hell for his sins were varied and not great. Today many of his sins are ordinary. For example, most people attempt to better their own lives without regard of others. They attempt to increase their standard of living and gain more worldly possessions. They are neither good nor evil but are just trying to make a living and keep up in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Before AugustineÃ¢â¬â¢s conversion, this was his goal. He was continually searching for Ã¢â¬Å"honors, money, (and) marriageÃ¢â¬ (Confessions, 991). This allows Augustine to be placed in the first area of hell, the Vestibule. It is a place for opportunists such as Augustine was before his conversion. It is a place for the Ã¢â¬Å"nearlyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦His carnal desires overpowered his soul for the majority of his life. During his lifetime, he had a multitude of mistresses. One of these mistresses he took because he was unable to wait for a little over a year to have sex before being married to his promised wife. She had to reach the legal marrying age of twelve before they could consummate. Ã¢â¬Å"I was unable to bear the delay of two years which must pass before I was to get the girl I had asked for in marriage. In fact it was not really marriage that I wanted. I was simply a slave to lust. So I took another womanÃ¢â¬ (Confessions, 993). Whether or not AugustineÃ¢â¬â¢s soul can be placed in the fourth circle of hell is a tough decision. Since he was an opportunist, part of his life was spent attempting to gain as many riches as possible in search of happiness. This would classify him as a hoarder, but seems insignificant among his other sins. There does not appear to be a place for AugustineÃ¢â¬â¢s soul in either the third, fifth, sixth, or seventh circles of hell for he did not commit any of the offending sins that would place him within one of these realms. Circle seven is the realm of the thieves. Augustine can be placed here for the petty crimes committed during his adolescent years. This includes the theft of the pears from the pear tree near the vineyard. This crime was committed merely for the pleasure of doing something that was wrong, not for benefit: Ã¢â¬Å"I stole things which I already had in plenty and of better quality. NorShow MoreRelated Dantes Inferno Essay888 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Dantes use of allegory in the Inferno greatly varies from Platos quot;Allegory of the Cavequot; in purpose, symbolism, characters and mentors, and in attitude toward the world. An analysis of each of these elements in both allegories will provide an interesting comparison. Dante uses allegory to relate the sinners punishment to his sin, while Plato uses allegory to discuss ignorance and knowledge. Dantes Inferno describes the descent through Hell from the upper level of the opportunists toRead MoreThe Inferno And The Systems Theory1220 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDanteÃ¢â¬â¢s Inferno is an allegorical tale that reflects a tumultuous time in Florence. The Inferno reflects the common thinking of religion and Christianity at the time and through examination of both the Inferno and the systems theory, a better understanding of life in Florence, at that time, can be better comprehended. The systems theory is a model that explores the intertwined aspects of a given civilization. DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s Inferno details aspects of the systems theory that can be used to better understandRead MoreSatan in Paradaise Lost and Dantes Inferno1138 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesall judgement is appearance and such this is most logical place to start. Appearance plays a rather crucial role in the works under the scope of this essay. Firstly, in Paradise Lost one should note that a reoccurring theme of: Ã¢â¬Å"its better to rule in Hell then be a servant in Heaven,Ã¢â¬ (Milton.I.263) makes a few significant points regarding make aspects into the neosis o f Satan, but more so the appearance of Satan. The line in itself causes one to believe that he hath experienced both dominions in theRead More Analysis of the Inferno of Dante Alighieris Divine Comedy Essay1221 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAnalysis of the Inferno of Dante Alighieris Divine Comedy The Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri is considered by many as the first great poem in the Italian language and perhaps the greatest poem written in Medieval Europe. The poem is so famous that one of the minor characters, Capaneus the great blasphemer, has his name on a mesa on one of Jupiters moon Io (Blue, 1). Also, the poem is divided into three canticles, or sections, Inferno, Purgatorio, andRead More Analysis of Robert Frosts Fire and Ice Essay1087 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAnalysis of Robert Frosts Fire and Ice Ã Ã Ã Ã For Robert Frost, poetry and life Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã were one and the same.Ã In an interview he said, One thing I care about, Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã and wish young people could care about, is taking poetry as the first form Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã of understanding.Ã Each Robert Frost poem strikes a chord somewhere, each Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã poem bringing us closer to life with the compression of feeling and Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã emotion into so few words.Ã This essay will focus on one particularRead MoreThe 9 Layers Of Hell Essay1682 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesa narration of DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s journey through Hell, purgatory and finally Heaven. Dante utilizes the notion of hell to encourage, admonish and warn his readers of the contrapasso of their sins, the different layers of hell, and famous leaders of his time. This essay is an exposition, interpretation and critical analysis of the 9 layers of Hell depicted in DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s epic, the Inferno. To begin DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s trip to heaven to be with his one true love Beatrice, he must first travel through hell. Directly throughRead MoreInferno Research Paper1715 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespunishment in DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s Hell are exquisitely diverse.Ã¢â¬ The cantos in Inferno are focused on Circles or subdivisions of Hell that describe specific punishments for the suffering souls based upon the sin they committed. The deeper into Hell, the worse the sins that were committed, therefore the agonies of the punishments are greater. In Inferno, Dante brings the issue of sin into light by giving instances of sins he has taken note of. He places the guilty souls at different levels of Hell, depending onRead MoreThe Inferno And What Dante1374 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe form of Dante. It is worth noting that the journey has been split into three classical parts, each depicting the changes that are being portrayed throughout the journey of Dante. The first part is the inferno, which is a loose i nterpretation of hell and with it comes the changes that are being portrayed in the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s story journey. The second part is the purgatorio, which can be interpreted to refer to the purgatory of the story and the changes that occur at this point are characterized byRead MoreTaming Of The Shrew By William Shakespeare1671 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe idea of the contrapasso, or counter suffering, explains that punishments must arise from the sin itself, not the damage that the sin created. DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s Inferno expresses the contropasso through nine circles of Hell which are distinguished based upon the specific sin of a mortal being. The job of placing mortals into a particular circle of Hell can be an arduous, but given the opportunity to fulfill this task; Katherina from ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Taming of the Shrew displays the distinct characteristicsRead MoreDante Alighieris Road to Success Essay850 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmany moral ideas. In this tale, a man named Dante the Pilgrim takes a voyage into Hell with Virgil. They go through many different levels and circles of Hell that each represents an important sin or crime. Though it is a highly controversial book, there is one specific passage that is important to finding success. In this quote, Virgil is speaking to Dante who has tired along his path through the seventh circle of Hell: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËUp on your feet! This is no time to tire!Ã¢â¬â¢ my Master cried. Ã¢â¬ËThe man who lies
Government policies can have a significant impact on the average profitability of firm s in an Industry. Government, however, Is not Included as a potential threat In the five forces model. Should the model be expanded to include government (to make a Ã¢â¬Å"six forcesÃ¢â¬ model)? Why or why not? 2. We will write a custom essay sample on Strategic Management and Production Differentiation Efforts or any similar topic only for you Order Now How would you add complementary to the five forces model? In particular, if an Indus try has large numbers of complementary, does that make It more attractive, less attractive, or does it have no impact on the industry attractiveness? Justify. 3. Which firm will have a higher level of economic performance: (a) a firm with valuable, rare, and costly-to- Imitate capabilities competing In a very attractive Industry or (b) a firm with valuable, rare, and costly-to-imitate capabilities competing In a very unattractive Industry? 4. Will a firm currently experiencing competitive parity be able to gain sustained advent age by studying another firm that is experiencing competitive advantage? Why or why not? 5. Firms engage In an actually called Ã¢â¬Å"forward pricingÃ¢â¬ when they establish, during the e rely stages of the learning curve, a price for their product that is lower than their actual costs, in an dedication of lower costs later on, after significant learning has occurred. Under what conditions, if any, does forward pricing make sense? What risks, If any, do firms engaging In forward pricing f ace? 6. When GOES exist, firms with large volumes of production will have lower costs than too SE with smaller volumes of production. The realization of these economies of scale, however, is far from How to cite Strategic Management and Production Differentiation Efforts, Essays
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Simulation overview Quasar computer has won populace and reputation for its innovation of the revolutionary wonder, the Ã¢â¬ËNeutronÃ¢â¬â¢. The product high speed microprocessor feature makes it outstanding. History marks that the company enjoyed monopoly from 2003 to 2006.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Non Pricing Strategy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As such, this paper simulation advances to explore strategic variables that will that will sustain Quasar computer after several years of monopoly following assumption of market structure changes. Non pricing strategies Non pricing strategies undertaken by Quasar Computers were geared to distinguish its products from those offered by the competitor. As such, it is overbearing that the digital company apply the unsurpassed strategies for the notebook in an effort of maximizing its revenue as well as enjoying pure monopoly. The pure monopoly does not disqu alify other market structures. Quasar computers undertook an innovative approach to the build a high class technology on their notebooks. This is because the company coined the first production of all-optical notebook computers (McConnell, Brue Flynn 2009). The management had two options to operate competitively. One is to have Ceres, which will present a distinguished model with less investment in the new product features. Furthermore, premium pricing will be realised as well as low bullÃ¢â¬â¢s eye of volumes. Undertaking to explore the little amount of unutilised capacity will lead to the price per unit cost to be at its lowest. As such, applying twelve million units of production capacity not utilised brings down the production costs of both Neutron and Ceres. As such, adopt a brand advertising strategy that may take up to $200 million. On the other hand, go ahead to build Neutron at present advertising budget. In essence, spending two hundred million on aggressive advertising to launch again would propel the sales to two million more units simultaneously. In effect, enhance use of excess volume by aggressively encouraging demand to reach optimum quantity (Pugel, 2009).Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Managerial Decision Making for each Market According to the economic concept, the market structure is composed of firms producing identical goods and services. As such, the managerial decisions will cover the production of these products to achieve the common business goals (profits maximization, cost minimization) in the face of surrounding competitors acting independently to take up their business by giving better services. Monopoly The best managerial decision making for the firm as a monopoly that will sustain the profits will be to assume that Marginal Cost equals Marginal Revenue (MC=MR rule). For instance, prices should be reduced to $2,450, a point where MC = MR as per the year 2004. Subsequent advertising campaign led to large revenue sales to a total of $2.74 billion. Oligopoly This marks end of monopoly (entry of Orion Technologies) and the management anticipates fierce competition, a downward sloping demand curve. As such, prices will begin to reduce corresponding to decreasing demand. As such, the management will strategize its investment on promotional activities for brand awareness and confirmation. At the same time, focus on improving and streamlining productivity. In addition, the management will focus on protecting its market through competitively setting its price (McConnell, Brue Flynn 2009). Monopolistic competition This market brings more competitors to the industry. As such, one loses market shares and straining to earn profits. Management has to diversify its production to introduce a new product such as Ceres as well as invest in brand development of neutrons. Again, div Perfect market competition Pr ofits can barely be increased and costs minimized and the company market share depleted. The management will take decisive action to stimulate demand in an effort to increase the market share in the short run. As such, the company may set $ 200 million to advertise for new product with a view of exploiting fresh target industries (Pugel, 2009). References McConnell, C. R., Brue, S.L., Flynn, S.M. (2009). Economics: Principles, problems, and policies, 18th ed. New York: McGraw Hill/Irwin.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Non Pricing Strategy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Pugel, T. A. (2009). International Economics 14th ed. New York: McGraw Hill/Irwin. This report on Non Pricing Strategy was written and submitted by user Abdullah H. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Mr. Jacobsen Essay Mr. Jacobsen Essay Global Edge Comparison Paper David Jacobsen Indiana Wesleyan University MBAO256 ADM 508 James Kraai Singapore is an emerging global powerhouse on the economic market. As part of the East Asia Pacific Region, Singapore is leading the charge as one of the most successful companies in a very successful region. Out of 183 countries, several factors are used to evaluate and rank them on aspects of business ease and cost. Singapore ranks number one over all with their lowest individual category being 15 out of 183 for Registering Property. (doingbusiness.org) Upon reviewing doingbusiness.org, one of the referenced sites from Global Edge, it appears that one of the key factors to SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s success is the ease and low cost of starting a business. The process can be done in an average of three days when the average for East Asian Pacific is a staggering thirty seven, This appears to be caused in part by having only three procedures to register a business when other countries in the region have seven. The cost of registering a business in Singapore is much lower than the average f or the region as well. The Region averages 22.7% of income per capita, Singapore slides in at .7% making it much more profitable from the get go. This is not to say that the Region is not successful, Singapore is in a trade bloc with ten other Asian countries called ASEAN. It shares the block with countries like Thailand who is ranked 13th out of the 183 countries by doing business yet has a Gross Domestic Product only a fraction of the size of SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s. In fact when you compare the companies in the Trade Bloc, Singapore is by far the largest as far as GDP and has one of the smaller population sizes. In his blog about leading the way in emerging markets, Evan Pennisi describes what some of the key factors to SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s success are. He states Ã¢â¬Å"Singapore was able to position itself as one of the fastest growing economies in the world for one key reason.Ã¢â¬ He talks about the assistance programs provided to Singapore based companies to encourage expansion. He also talks about the ease of exporting and importing overseas. The factors caused a 9.7 percent increase in
Monday, March 2, 2020
Learn About Italian Easter Traditions and Customs A huge explosion will be detonated Easter Sunday in front of the magnificent greenÃ¢â¬â and whiteÃ¢â¬âmarbled neogothic church in Florences centro storico. Instead of running in fear from a terrorists bomb, though, thousands of spectators will cheer the noise and smoke, for they will be witnesses to the annual Scoppio del Carro- explosion of the cart. For over 300 years the Easter celebration in Florence has included this ritual, during which an elaborate wagon, a structure built in 1679 and standing two to three stories high, is dragged through Florence behind a fleet of white oxen decorated in garlands. The pageantry ends in front of the Basilica di S. Maria del Fiore, where Mass is held. During the midday service, a holy fire is stoked by ancient stone chips from the Holy Sepulcher, and the Archbishop lights a doveÃ¢â¬âshaped rocket which travels down a wire and collides with the cart in the square, setting off spectacular fireworks and explosions to the cheers of all. A big bang ensures a good harvest, and a parade in medieval costume follows. Tradition and ritual play a strong role in Italian culture, especially during celebrations such as Easter, the Christian holiday based on the pagan festival called Eostur-Monath. No matter what date Easter falls on, there are many ceremonies and culinary customs that are religiously upheld. Some traditions are regional, for instance the art of palm weaving, in which decorative crosses and other designs are created from the palms received on Palm Sunday. Easter Ceremonies in Italy At Vatican City there are a series of solemn events that culminate in Easter Sunday Mass. During the spring holy days that center around the vernal equinox there are also many other rites practiced throughout the country that have their roots in historic pagan rituals. In addition, the Monday following Easter is an official Italian holiday called la Pasquetta, so if traveling be prepared for another day of repose. Tredozio On Easter Monday the Palio dellUovo is a competition where eggs are the stars of the games. Merano The Corse Rusticane are conducted, fascinating races with a special breed of horses famous for their blonde manes ridden by youths wearing the local costumes of their towns. Before the race, the participants parade through the streets of the town followed by a band and folk dance groups. Barano dIschia On Easter Monday the Ndrezzata takes place- a dance which revives the fights against the Saracens. Carovigno On the Saturday before Easter is a procession dedicated to the Madonna del Belvedere during which the Nzeghe contest takes place: banners must be hurled as far as possible. Enna Religious rites dating back to the Spanish domination (fifteenth through seventeenth century) take place in this Sicilian town. On Good Friday, the different religious confraternities gather around the main church and over 2,000 friars wearing ancient costumes silently parade through the streets of the city. On Easter Sunday, the Paci ceremony takes place: the statue of the Virgin and that of Jesus Christ are first taken to the main square and then into the church where they stay for a week. Easter Dining In Italy, the expression Natale con i tuoi, Pasqua con chi vuoi is frequently heard (Christmas with your family, Easter with your own choice of friends). Oftentimes, this implies sitting down to a dinner that starts with minestra di Pasqua, the traditional beginning of the Neapolitan Easter meal. Other classic Easter recipes include carciofi fritti (fried artichokes), a main course of either capretto o agnellino al forno (roasted goat or baby lamb) or capretto cacio e uova (kid stewed with cheese, peas, and eggs), and carciofi e patate soffritti, a delicious vegetable side dish of sautÃ ©ed artichokes with baby potatoes. A holiday meal in Italy would not be complete without a traditional dessert, and during Easter there are several. Italian children finish their dinner with a rich bread shaped like a crown and studded with colored Easter egg candies. La pastiera Napoletana, the classic Neapolitan grain pie, is a centuriesÃ¢â¬âold dish with innumerable versions, each made according to a closely guarded family recipe. Another treat is theÃ Colomba cake, a sweet, eggy, yeasted bread (like panettone plus candied orange peel, minus the raisins, and topped with sugared and sliced almonds) shaped in one of the most recognizable symbols of Easter, the dove. The Colomba cake takes on this form precisely becauseÃ la colombaÃ in Italian means dove, the symbol of peace and an appropriate finish to Easter dinner. Uova di Pasqua Although Italians do not decorate hardÃ¢â¬âboiled eggs nor have chocolate bunnies or pastel marshmallow chicks, the biggest Easter displays in bars, pastry shops, supermarkets, and especially at chocolatiers are brightly wrappedÃ uova di Pasqua- chocolate Easter eggs- in sizes that range from 10 grams (1/3 ounce) to 8 kilos (nearly 18 pounds). Most of them are made of milk chocolate in a midÃ¢â¬ârange, 10Ã¢â¬âounce size by industrial chocolate makers. Some producers distinguish between their chocolate eggs for children (sales numbers are a closely guarded secret, but the market for these standard quality eggs is said to be shrinking with Italys birthrate) and expensive adult versions. All except the tiniest eggs contain a surprise. GrownÃ¢â¬âups often find their eggs contain little silver picture frames or goldÃ¢â¬âdipped costume jewelry. The very best eggs are handmade by artisans of chocolate, who offer the service of inserting a surprise supplied by the purchaser. Car keys, engagement rings, and watches are some of the highÃ¢â¬âend gifts that have been tucked into Italian chocolate eggs in Italy. Italian Easter Vocabulary List Click to hear the highlighted word spoken by a native speaker. lagnello- lambBuona Pasqua- Happy Easteril coniglietto- bunny rabbitla crocifissione- Crucifixionla pace- peacela Pasquetta- Easter Mondayla primavera- springla resurrezione- Resurrectionla settimana santa- Holy WeeklUltima Cena- Last Supperle uova- eggsVenerdÃ ¬ Santo- Holy Friday
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Principles of Business - Assignment Example The result might have been conflicts of interest that had negative effects on the financial health of the company. According to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s federal tax returns, financial dealings with companies that were owned by board members cost UPMC $10 million. $5 million worth of transactions between businesses connected to the board members were reported in the tax records (Roche Jr., 2010). In reviewing the financial activity, the concept of corporate governance becomes relevant. It is defined as the standards which are deemed as appropriate in the running of the company. Because the management of UPMC engaged in cozy business deals with insiders, costing the company $10 million, it clearly was not recommended by the corporate governance system. The concept of fair market value is also relevant. Because the transactions were affected by the board membersÃ¢â¬â¢ relationships as reported by the press, the financial activity might not have been conducted at fair market value. A finan cial transaction is conducted at fair market value when the transaction happens at the rate that is set by the market mechanism. Because UPMC awarded contracts to the board membersÃ¢â¬â¢ companies at favored rates, it cost the company $10 million, resulting in $489 million losses in 2009.
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Manage Accountability --budget - Assignment Example A budget is a forecast or an estimation of the expected income or revenue and a projection of the intended expenses and how these expenses will be funded. Budgeting is a process that not only lies with the financial department but with the whole management since it requires making decisions regarding the projects to be funded, the expenses to be cut down to reduce the cost and other decisions regarding capital investments, marketing and so forth. This purpose of this paper is to categorically prove why the decision to revert the budget from improvement of a local county highway to expand an interstate freeway, was a viable decision in line with management accountability and cost benefit application. The best procedure I will implement in an effort to analyze the utilization of those funds is the zero-based budgeting procedure. This system of budgeting requires that all departments in a firm to justify all allocations and expenses for each new period and not relying on past expenditure trend (Bhattacharrya, 2011). This system assumes that there is neither carrying forward of balances nor existence of current obligations. The requirement is that all activities in the period will be implemented on the basis of cost-benefit analysis, which advocates for a systematic resource allocation criteria. It is with no doubts that this system will suit this project. This is because this process comes as an alternate to the others and is fully funded. This means there would be no need at all to revisit the past expenditure plan. The system helps to identify areas that result to wasting resources and elimination. This is the common goal of every organization as a means of benefiting from cutting costs of unessential areas (Bhattacharrya, 2011). In a survey carried in 2009 of government Budget Transparency, found out that the misuse
Friday, January 24, 2020
The Irish Troubles: Yeat's Poetry William Butler Yeats, born in Dublin, Ireland [June 13, 1865], is considered by many to be one of the greatest English-language poets of the 20th century. The following exposition, grounded on the hypothesis that YeatsÃ¢â¬â¢ poetry was resolutely influenced by the political occurrences of that time period, will give biographical information, a recounting of the political upheaval during that period, specific poetry excerpts/critical analysis and validation of hypothesis. William Butler Yeats is one of the many famous names to come from the original Golden Dawn. "His poetry and writings were a display of his passion for mysticism and the Occult Sciences"(www.webus.com/hogd/bioyeats.html). He received the Nobel Prize for literature in 1924. Yeats realized early on the oppression and austerity that both he and his fellow countrymen endured. YeatsÃ¢â¬â¢ father was a lawyer, who later pursued a career as a painter. In 1867, the family followed him to London, where William spent most of his youth. Upon his return to Dublin, Yeats furthered his studies at the Metropolitan School of Art. "As a writer Yeats made his debut in 1885, when he published his first poems in The Dublin University Review"(www.kifjasto.sci/wbyeats.htm). In 1887 the family returned to Bedford Park and Yeats devoted himself to writing. Later in 1889, Yeats met his undeniable love, Maude Gonne, an Irish Nationalist, who greatly inspired his poetry. However, Maude later married Major John MacBride. "At the start of the Irish Civil War Yeats went to Oxford, but returned then to Dublin, becoming a Senator in the same year. As a politician Yeats defended Protestant interests and took pro-Treaty stance against Republicans. In 1932 Ye... ...likely that anyone reading this article can image "sensible" violence and most of us simply find the lack of civil behavior to be far beyond anything we can understand. It seemed to me that it would be appropriate to try and shed some light on the so-called "troubles" because the situation in Northern Ireland exceeds several lifetimes and yet appears incomprehensible" (//www.ftlcomm.com/ensign/ireland/ireland2.html). To conclude, Ireland has faced years of prejudice, suppression, and tyranny. Yeats, like many other nationalists recognized this and in his own way attempted to address these issues by publicly announcing his contempt for this discrimination, through poetry, but to no avail. As we can see, these troubles continue to challenge the citizens of Ireland. Perhaps, one day this persecution will cease to exist, but for now it is an existing way of life!
Thursday, January 16, 2020
Social services consist of goods that are part of major resource bases that must be managed effectively in order to fulfill the ongoing development need of the country. The public health care system (PHCS) is one of the resource bases that directly benefits from government budget allocation. Throughout Cameroon, researchers observe major differences and unequal share distribution in the access and utilization of the public health services. These incongruities become obvious when examining the distribution of health infrastructures and health workers throughout Cameroon. A closer analysis shows that the organizational imbalance of public health establishments, along with inappropriate internal and external administrative politics (financial weaknesses and inadequate governance) in the management of PHCS are the most significant obstacles affecting the effectiveness of the health staff, the efficiency of the PHCS and the equity of public health services delivery in Cameroon. Human Resource Distribution First, the number of health care workers across the country is significantly inadequate with approximately 1 physician made available for about 10,000 inhabitants, compared to 1 for every 3,000 as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Furthermore, it has been reported that there is about 1 nurse for every 2,250 individuals, compared to 1 for every 1,000 as recommended by the WHO. Table 2-1 shows the statistical trend in the number of physicians, nurses, midwives, dentists and other health care providers from 1980 to 2005, as well as the increase in the number of pharmacies. Even though the numbers that are displayed in this table seem large, and bearing in mind that the population has been steadily increasing since 1980, there is a discrepancy between the number of providers working in the health care industry and the number of people living in Cameroon. Indeed, in 2001 the human resource deficit in the PHCS has been estimated to total approximately 9,000 persons. In addition to the deficient number of health care workers, there is unequal distribution of health staffs throughout the country with wide distribution disparities between urban and rural areas, which point to obvious disparities in access to care between poor and non-poor. Studies show that while the ratio of health personnel stands at 1 for 400 people in urban areas, their ratio of health personnel decreases tenfold, and is pegged at 1 for 4000 people in rural areas, requiring rural residents to travel long distances to receive the necessary medical care. Such imbalance between health workers and the population requiring the health services raises concerns about the effectiveness of the health providers, since it is likely that their competence would be diminished due to the heavy load of patients they must care for. Because PHCS facilities are selectively located, there arise problems of equity in access. Equipment and Facilities Distribution The distribution of equipment and facilities resources also indicates that the PHCS is poorly equipped to provide adequate health services to meet the needs of the population. The physical resourcesÃ¢â¬â buildings, equipment, and suppliesÃ¢â¬â have been woefully deteriorating for some time. Most of the infrastructure and the equipment of the PHCS are outdated. Facilities are unevenly distributed among provinces, as well as between urban and rural areas. Table 2-2 shows that there is 1 health center for 8,500 people, 1 hospital bed for 770 people, and 1 health facility per 85,000 people, which is clearly insufficient to meet the medical needs of the population, and at the same time, provide appropriate medical care. Though the total number of health centers has increased twofold rising from 1,893 health centers in 1990 to 2,144 health centers in 1996, the inequitable distribution creates issues of disproportionate access to health services. Therefore, though there might be sufficient facilities for providing primary care for the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s population, the problem of uneven geographical distribution of health care facilities and the lack of trained medical personnel in remote areas, are incongruent and remain unresolved. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Health professionals and trained support staffs, valuable and indispensable assets of any health care system, are crucially scarce in the Cameroonian PHCS. Health professionals need to be trained and motivated to perform at optimal levels; however, in Cameroon, there are no incentives to encourage competent health workers to stay in the public sector or provide good quality services in the public facilities. Those health workers who remain and work in the public health sector have been primarily assigned to urban public facilities due to their general reluctance to relocate to remote areas of the country. Consequently, there exists an oversupply of qualified health providers with an attendant oversupply of infrastructure in mostly urban areas; whereas, there is an undersupply of qualified staff with the attendant undersupply of adequate infrastructures in primarily rural areas. Hence, the shortage and uneven distribution of trained health workers nationwide as well as the insufficient and disparate distribution of health facilities promote overcrowding of many public health facilities. Taken together, these prevailing conditions limit the effectiveness of health care workers, and contribute to underutilization of facilities in other areas, all resulting in inefficiency of the PHCS. The disparities of health services across the country can be noted in Table 2-2. Ã Inadequate Governance and Lack of Funding Apart from the decrepit health facilities, the accompanying technical support centers are also quite outdated with inept and corrupt bureaucratic administrations. Routine procedures that should normally be completed within a matter of hours can take several days to be resolved. Such ineptitude points to a lack of administrative discipline and an ingrained culture of corruption in the public healthcare system. From administrative procedures to medical procedures, patientsÃ¢â¬â especially the poorÃ¢â¬â have to bribe the personnel in order to obtain medical service delivery or they have to be prepared to undergo several trips to the healthcare institution just to receive appropriate medical care. Furthermore, there is no proper management accounting system in public health facilities, raising issues of inadequate management. Earned income from performed services are not all reported and when they are it remains quite unclear which charges correspond to which services. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A number of conflicting phenomena that retard effective development of PHCS have yet to be resolved or corrected. The conflict of interest and the agency problems arising when publicly employed physicians also manage public health facilities seems not to be a major concern of the MOPH. Physicians employed to serve public facilities may tend to divert patients to their own private clinics or they lack the necessary rigor and ethics in the delivery of medical care. There is therefore a clear shortage of competent and skilled healthcare managers and a lack of management leadership capacity resulting in extensive internal administrative weaknesses. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The lack of strategic planning in the conception and the implementation of health projects and programs also contributes to the failure of initiated health projects. Managers at public facilities, mainly possessing only basic medical background, lack the vision, the leadership capacity and the management discipline required for the function of healthcare manager. They approve projects presented to them, for example, based on subjective (highest under the table kickback) rather than objective (impact on population health status and improvement in quality of life) considerations. They do not have competent support staff to assist them in performing business strategic evaluation, which is necessary before engaging in any project. Such preparatory analysis would include environmental scanning, strategy formulation, strategy implementation and evaluation and control of operations. Thus, the lack of strategic management capacity and the inability to learn from past mistakes and othersÃ¢â¬â¢ experiences favor wastage of precious resources and promote inadequate governance of the PHCS. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Significantly, the PHCS is clearly under financed. Health care organizations must generate cash flow, acquire assets, and put those assets to work, just as manufacturing and banking organizations do. Though the public budget allocated to PHCS has more than doubled in the last couple of years, going from CFAF 24,048 billion or 2.16% of the national budget in 1997 to CFAF 120,844 billion or 7.82% of the national budget in 2005 (Table 2-3), it is important to note that such growth coincided with the implementation of several economic reforms and the approval of loans from the World bank (WB). Moreover, a significant amount of the monies available were heavily invested in the restructuring of some health facilities, the building of roads to increase access to care and the training of health workers. But despite the increases in government funding, the financial allocations are indeed meager considering the ongoing needs of the growing population. For instance, the structural renovations performed were certainly not sufficient to insure quality of care delivery nor were they enough to ensure increased use of health services. Furthermore, primary health care centers and district hospitals, even those with trained staffs, lack adequate technology to diagnose many infectious diseases, and they regularly run out of medical supplies and pharmaceutical drugs. External contribution to the financing of health care in government budget has increased also, rising from 26.53% of the total health investment in 1997 to 32.10% in the year 2000, as shown in Table 1-3. However, the management of such funds is troubling to the degree that in most cases health facilities do not receive the bulk of the monies from foreign financial benefactors. Internal organizational structures plagued with heavy bureaucratic barriers and heavy corruptive practices prevent the proper and fast disbursement of the external fund contributions, raising issues once again of internal dysfunctional organizational structure and inadequate governance. The lack of rigorous and transparent handling of funds leaves severe deficiencies in financial accountability and encourages false reporting and embezzlement of health funds. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In addition, the MOPH has not been able to allocate monies equitably across the territory based upon the consideration of the geographic spread and economic need of the total population. Instead of using the donated funds for the revival of essential programs such as health prevention campaigns, immunization campaigns, information campaigns, and targeting services most frequently used by the poor, about 60% of government health expenditure is devoted to urban health facilities serving only about 20% of the population. Such preferential allocations create an issue of inequality in access and utilization of care. Moreover, households are then obligated to assign larger shares of their budgets for health expenditure. Meanwhile, the poverty rate has been steadily increasing nationwide. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Another factor causing the low financing of PHCS is the practice of either wrongful or unwise disbursement of funds in the sense of not considering future development and advancement. Most funds earmarked for health care development are sunk into production costs (maintenance of major equipment, payment of salaries, replenishing of inventories, and so forth) with nothing substantial left for infrastructural developments and quality improvements in delivery care. Foreign Aid and Healthcare Expenditure Essentially, external institutions have dictated a number of economic constraints on national budgetary decisions. Cameroon is one of those countries subscribed to the WB/IMF structural adjustment program (SAP) which imposed drastic cuts in the national budget for health which went from 120 billion CFAF or 3.3% of the total GDP in 2002 to 58 billion CFAF or 1% of the GDP in 2005. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The SAP policies required already indebted countries to: (1) shift from production of domestic consumption food to producing cash crops for export; (2) abolish food and agricultural subsidies to reduce government expenditure; (3) severely cut health, education, and housing program funding and reduce salaries; and (4) devaluate the currencies and privatize government-held enterprises. The reform designed to stabilize the economy exerted adverse effects instead on the economy of borrowing countries like Cameroon. In reality, [the World Bank] imposed harsh measures, which exacerbated poverty, undermined food security and self-reliance and led to resource exploitation, environmental destruction and population displacement. The health sector was particularly adversely affected, and few proactive steps were taken to protect vulnerable populations and ensure ongoing availability of basic services. Following the expenditure cuts, especially in the national budget for public health, the following conditions occurred: (1) the integrated health centers lost qualified personnel and a shortage of basic health materials ensued; (2) the training of health workers was interrupted, which in turn affected the motivation level of doctors and health workers; (3) there was a shortage of medical supplies, a breakdown of transportation and problems of inadequate management; and (4) medical consultations and hospitalization declined despite the increases in acute infectious diseases. More generally, the quality of care delivery in public facilities declined and studies showed that more patients sought care in private institutions despite their higher costs. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In addition to all the obstacles of an already struggling PHCS, the combined effects of infectious disease epidemics of tuberculosis, malaria, and HIV/AIDS, further strained the public health sector beyond its limits. The failure of the public health system to provide appropriate medical care for individuals who had contracted these diseasesÃ¢â¬â large segments of the population Ã¢â¬â led the latter to choose more expensive private medical services. Consequently, as shown in Table 2-4, the household budget for health expenditure skyrocketed and rose from 4% in 1983/84 to 9.6% in 1995/96 resulting in a household spending on health from $14 to $20.6 per capita. The increase is mainly due to elevated out-of-pocket payments charged for private medical services, raising the issue of inequality once again in the use of care. The WHO has estimated that the cost of a basic package of health care delivered to 90% of the population in a low-income country like Cameroon would be a $13 per capita (table 2-5). Ã However, a further analysis of the region matrix in table 2-5 and the distribution of household per capita health expenditures by population decile (which is a partial source to income group matrix) in table 2-6 reveals even more drastic inequalities in the distribution of health expenditure across income groups and between urban and rural regions. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Thus, in 1998, the per capita household expenditure for health by the poorest 10% of the population was only $5.4 while for the richest 10% it was $90.4. This translates in the utilization of private health servicesÃ¢â¬â more effective deliveryÃ¢â¬â by the part of the population with higher income and the utilization of public facilitiesÃ¢â¬âless effective deliveryÃ¢â¬â by the poorest portion of the population. The wide middle class will seek medical care from public, private or traditional providers based upon their current financial means. Ã The table 2-5 highlights the wide inequalities in the distribution of health expenditures between urban and rural areas (and to a lesser extent among rural areas). In Douala and Yaounde (the two largest towns holding about 40% of the population) the capita health expenditures were $51.9 and $46.1 respectively compared to $18.5 and $18.9 in the rural plateau and rural savanna. Such imbalances are due to the fact that households have higher incomes in urban areas, government spending is higher in urban areas and enterprises, both public and private, are concentrated in urban towns. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã An evaluation of the performance of the PHCS reveals, therefore, that the principal elements and characteristics of successful health systems including accessibility to facilities, appropriateness of medical treatments, effectiveness in access of care, efficiency in delivery of care and equity in use of care, are all seriously lacking in the Cameroonian PHCS. Effectiveness: Public Health Care System Performance In Cameroon, public health facilities perform below expectations due to organizational, managerial and financial issues. This below average performance results in reduced effectiveness of public healthcare providers, inefficiency of the PHCS and unequal access to health services by a large portion of the population who needs it the most. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Budgetary cut backs have also led to a moratorium on the construction and equipping of health facilities, a freeze on the recruiting of public health employees, and a shortage of sufficient qualified personnel. In addition, the distribution of health workers across the country is inappropriate due to discrepancies in regional distribution of health facilities. In a major way, salaries have been slashed with the attendant consequences of the lack of motivation and lower performance (low morale) among health personnel. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As a result overall, the main quality indicators have deteriorated in the light of WHO standards. The per capita ratio of physicians, nurses, hospital beds, health centers and pharmacies shown in Table 1-1 indicate major discrepancies in the distribution of health resources across the territory. Human resource planning is to be revised and working conditions are to be ameliorated in order to attract more care providers in the public sector, increase productivity and effectiveness of the PHCS. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Not only is there a shortage of human resource personnel, but there are also supply management deficits. Inventories are not kept accurately, so doctors and nurses can help themselves to medications directly on shelves, and supply depends on availability of resources rather than based on any demand assessment. This means that inventories and supplies are replenished whenever funds permit. Moreover, supplies are not equally distributed among health facilities. Urban health facilities tend to receive more stock and resources than rural or remote health facilities, but medication and medical materials are in more grave demand in these latter areas. In some rural facilities, syringes and surgical material such as gloves and bedding are re-used. Some facilities even lack beds for patient and the laboratory material to perform blood or other tests. Thus, equipment that are needed for the care of ill patients are regularly in excessive quantities compared to other areas, and are lacking in other areas or where there are none at all. Ã All these factors engendered by internal and external mismanagement at both the financial and the organizational levels affect the rate of use of public health services, and, ultimately undermine and negate the efficiency and the effectiveness of the PHCS. Efficiency: Utilization of Public Health Facilities Several constraints have arisen during the last decade, which led to a significant decrease in the utilization of the public health care system. The government suspended recruiting and training of health care personnel because of lack of funding. Table 2-1 shows that there are fewer than 20,000 health care workers for a population of almost 17,000, 000 people. The prevailing (accepted) corruption in public health facilities is manifested through the observation of health personnel offering health care services which are normally free in exchange for financial favors. In Cameroon, though many medical services such as vaccination and delivery of essential drugs, are supposed to be free of charge, more often than not, personnel charge patients with nominal fees for these services. Moreover, the culture of Ã¢â¬Å"clientelismÃ¢â¬ is deeply rooted in the PHCS. Notably, medical services afforded to patients are prioritized not based on the severity of patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ illnesses, but rather on the level of rapport between the health staff and the patients or the amount of money the patients have at their disposal to be used to bribe the health staff. Health managers and health providers in the concerned facilities do not regularly investigate or follow up patients complaints simply because they belong to the same professional pool as those personnel who exploit the patients and accept bribes for routine medical care. Moreover, the lack of incentives from the MOPH to reinforce the delivery of free services and the fact that MOPH authorities are responsible for nominating those health managers, all factors which serve to undermine the effectiveness of any civil action against the malpractices observed in public health facilities. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In essence, as an intern in the Hospital La Quintinie in Douala in 2000, this researcher witnessed instances when patients bribed health personnel to receive health services they had already paid for at the cash register. This researcher also saw bodies being dumped in the front yard of the hospital and remaining there for hours before being dispatched to the morgue. In another instance, this researcher was informed of an individual who had sued a physician for negligence. The doctor had received a telephone call late at night relating to the difficult delivery of one of his patients; however, the doctor had asked the nurse to deal with the issue and turned off his cell phone, which resulted in the death of the patient. However, the case was dismissed and the physician, who did not even receive a temporary suspension or a reprimand, is still working at that facility. Also, seriously ill patients are still left unattended in waiting areas for extended hours. This situation fosters long lines and extensive waiting times, altogether discouraging many patients from seeking medical care in public health facilities. The efficiency of the public health system can be judged by the utilization of the services by the people for whom they are intended. According to the North West province records, during 1989 and 1995, there were 173,450 consultations in religious missions facilities versus 129,569 at government health centers in the northwest region. In other words, there is a two fold increase in the utilization of nonprofit facilities. That data attest to the low utilization of public health care services and implies that the quality of health services delivered is inferior in the public sector and, therefore, less sought. The evidence from the northwest province suggests a steady decline in health care provision by public facilities. The share of the government in both health centers and hospital consultations fell from 72.9% in 1989 to 50.1% in 1995 while the share of mission consultations increased from 25.5% to 47% and the private sectors from 1.6% to 2.9%. The bed occupancy rate in hospitals fell from 45% in 1985 to 23% in 1996. Therefore, it becomes apparent that many patients clearly demonstrated preference for health services offered by nonprofit organizations and for profit establishments instead of those offered in the public sector. Such utilization factors underscore the failure of the PHCS in providing efficient health services. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In fact, the poor, for whom public services are primarily intended, incur overall financial losses when using public health facilities. First, they must travel long distances to receive uncertain and inconsistent medical attention. Second, added to the time wasted on the road to reach health centers, they have to wait long hours to receive inadequate and inappropriate care or no care at all. The opportunity cost in terms of income loss and hours of labor is high compared to the quality of life improvement they might have gained. This prevents many low-income patients from utilizing public health facilities unless their diseases are in a well-advanced state and require immediate attention. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã According to the 1995 household-survey, 14.8% of health providers were traditional healers, 43.8% of consultations took place in public facilities, and 56.2% took place in private facilitiesÃ¢â¬â though 50% more expensive. There is a clear decrease in the utilization of public health facilities over private health clinics. The decaying public health care buildings, major components of the health care infrastructure, and the lack of competent health workers actually send negative messages to patients who, therefore, prefer to obtain appropriate care at higher costs at private institutions for those who can afford it. Table 2-7 further illustrates the low level of government health spending relative to private spending and household spending. Ã There is a grave degeneration of medical ethics in several public health facilities. Often, under qualified health workers perform specialized services they have not been trained for. In some hospitals, nurses are performing surgeries, delivering anesthesia and prescribing medicines. In other health facilities, the record of services provided is inaccurate and patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ files are non-existent. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The overall number of health care personnel in public health care facilities has decreased against a background of a growing population, resulting in a gap between the health services demand and the supply in the whole territory and an underutilization of public medical services. Underutilization promotes wastage in health care resources and inefficiency (low utilization) while favoring the development of over-crowding in other health units, which in itself prevents proper and adequate delivery of healthcare to patients. Moreover, the vast regional imbalances between the distribution of health care facilities and health care workers exacerbate the problem of underutilization of public health care facilities. Equity: Health Disparities Across the Nation There are significant differences in the state of health and the access to care between the poor and low-income households and the non-poor, as well as between urban and rural inhabitants. Most people turn to formal health services in cases of illness. Among those who have declared themselves ill in 2001, 3/4 was able to seek consultation at a formal health centers, versus 1/4 in informal facilities. Formal health centers are more frequently visited by the non-poor and informal facilities by the poor. It appears that non-poor seek medical help more often than the poor maybe due to superior financial capacity. Ã Another indicator of discrepancy between poor, non-poor, rural and urban residents is the vaccination rate. Thus, the immunization rate for non-poor children is better than that for poor children and children are better protected in cities than in rural areas. Table 2-5 reports inequality in the rate of consultation in formal and informal facilities between poor and non-poor in rural and urban areas. From that table, it appears that both income groups allocate similar budgets for health expenditure. However, the average health expenditure among the rural and poor residents is three times less than that of non-poor and urban dwellers. Thus, lower spending for health care services is reflected in the lower consultation rate of non-poor which is indicative of their health status. Thus, the infant (12 to 23 months) immunization rate for poor in rural areas was 66.9% and 53.1% for poor in urban areas while it was 89.5 for non-poor in rural areas and 70.2% for non-poor in urban areas. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Finally, the non-poor have to travel slightly lower distances to receive medical care than the poor which in turn increases their access to health services. According to regional health map data, 54% of people live less than five kilometers from an integrated health center. This average figure, however, conceals wide regional disparities, ranging from 43% of people living less than five kilometers from an integrated health center in the province of Adamaoua to 78% of people living less than five kilometers from an integrated health center in the Littoral province. Moreover, the household survey statement notes that rural people must travel five times farther than urban dwellers to reach the nearest health facility. Even more striking, 98.9% of the people who must travel 6 km to a health facility live in the countryside, indicating the serious problem of rural access to appropriate health care services. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Table 2-5 shows the division of health spending in urban areas (Douala, Yaounde, and other towns) and in rural areas. From this table, it is obvious that urban dwellers spend more on health care than rural dwellers mainly due to higher income since households in cities spend on average $34 on health care versus $16.7 on average on health care, which is about half of what urban dwellers spend on healthcare. Though government spending seems to be significantly higher in comparison to direct foreign aid and religious mission share of health spending, it must be emphasized that an increasing share of MOPH budget is financed through foreign financial donations (Table 1-3). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Table 2-8 is a perfect illustration of the lack of equity in the distribution of health services (whether in formal or informal facilities) among the different population groups in Cameroon. Ã From Table 2-8, it appears that annual average health spending per capita is three times higher in urban than in rural areas (39,00 CFAF vs. 13, 000 CFAF) and four times higher among the non-poor than it is among the poor (32,000 CFAF Vs 6,900 CFAF). Yet the cost of health services rose nearly three times as fast as the average inflation rate over the last five years by some 70% (13,000 CFAF to 22,00 CFAF), which led to a considerable decrease in the demand for health services, especially for the poor whose utilization of health services declined. References Adamolekun, L. (Ed.). (1999). Public Administration in Africa: Main Issues and Selected Country Studies. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. McKinney, J. B., & Howard, L. C. (1998). Public Administration: Balancing Power and Accountability (2nd ed.). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. Vine, V. T. (1971). The Cameroon Federal Republic. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Liberty, equality, fraternity, or death; - the last, much the easiest to bestow, O Guillotine!Ã¢â¬ -- Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities Reflect upon your lifetime. Was there ever a moment where you felt mistreated, or unequally represented? Maybe itÃ¢â¬â¢s that your boss listens to your other coworkers and not you. Or that you feel like the government is listening to corporative powers and not the people. Inequality fosters resentment. How would you feel if your voice wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t heard? The concept of inequality is not exclusive to the French Revolution. In fact, these variations are seen within our modern relationships, social structures, and political structuresÃ¢â¬âa few of which are outlined above. In regards to the French Revolution, theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Before we analyze what factor most influenced the start of the French Revolution, it must be acknowledged that although many factors had a role in the outbreak of the Revolution, not all factors were equally responsible. I believe that the political and social discrepancies within the country of France were the most significant element in lea ding up to the French Revolution. As explained before, many historians believe that the French Revolution was a result of the tensions felt within the Third Estate. This emphasis on a singular group in FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s political system limits oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to fully analyze the tensions of the time. Instead, by taking place during a period of Enlightenment, the time of the French Revolution was a dynamic point in European History. Many accredit this enlightening as being what allowed the French commoners to evolve from being obedient laborers of the state to leaders of a countrywide revolt. However, regardless of what infused a sense of revolution in FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s societally-recognized lesser class, without general stratification of the country and the conditions that bred inequality, the newfound furor to revolt would not have sparked any interest. Others magnify the situation even moreso than looking at just the First or Second or Third Estate and look directly at the rule of Louis XVI as being the determining factor in the Revolution. Although the king ruled over France and held the most power, and even thoughShow MoreRelatedCauses Of The French Revolution1119 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe French Revolution The French Revolution of 1789 was one of the biggest upheavals in history. You may be wondering what exactly led this to happen, but there were multiple long range causes. Political, social, and economic conditions ultimately led to the discontent of many French people especially those of the third estate. The ideals of the Enlightenment brought new views to government and society. Before the revolution, the majority of France were living in poverty. Peasants were entirelyRead MoreCauses Of The French Revolution896 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesyears, the French Revolution went from women marching to Versailles and demanding bread, to the institution of the Reign of Terror, which killed close to 250,000 people. The late 18th century was a dramatic time of French, political transformation which originally strived to implement equality throughout the nation. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen reflected the ideas of the Enlightenment and presented the idea of equality and liberty. In theory, the French Revolution of 1789Read MoreCauses Of The French Revolution906 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe French Revolution began with a corrupt monarch, and ended with the death of thousands. In 1789 the bourgeoisie (middle class) and peasants revolted against King Louis XVI and nobility, citing various reasons as cause: including corruption and a poor economy. These p eople, making up 97% of the population, were known as the third estate. The original purpose of the revolution was to create a constitutional monarchy, but this idea quickly became lost in the radical ideas of the revolution. HoweverRead MoreCauses Of The French Revolution911 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe French Revolution was a major turning point in all of European history. The old regime was destroyed and a new order came to be. 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There were many causes of the French Revolution; some were politicalRead MoreCauses of the French Revolution991 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFor six of the eight causes of revolution, describe two events, actions or beliefs (evidence) during the years before the French Revolution that led to a developing revolutionary situation. Explain how each contributed to the revolutionary situation. Frances failed attempts at economic reform contributed heavily to the developing revolutionary situation. In August 1787, when the parlements refused to implement the Kings proposed changes to the financial system, it became clear that the Kings authorityRead MoreThe Causes Of The French Revolution902 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe French Revolution was not caused by one single phenomenon, however it can be said that the events occurring in accordance with the French Revolution were not only terrifying but when looking through our eyes just clearly wrong. The most significant reasons for the French Revolution are the imbalance of equality, power, and rights these reasons are supported by the ideas of liberty and fraternity which developed from the enlightenment era philosophers. In conclusion to the French Revolution theRead MoreThe Causes Of The French Revolution1273 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDuring 1789, the French Revolution broke out against totalitarian rule and extreme poverty suffered by French civilians. France was under the absolute control of Louis XVI who gathered groups of nobles, clergy, and other royal families in certain cities. The corrupt French royal families in those cities were squandering nearly 75% of FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth and in addition to the expense of royal classes, other wealthy classes such as landlords, local government, and churches were not taxed which made taxesRead MoreThe Causes Of The French Revolution1522 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe French Revolution The French Revolution was arguably one of the most significant and controversial events in European history. It occurred during the years 1789-1799 when many French citizens became enraged with society and demanded political, financial and social change. The French peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s primary goal was to put an end to monarchy and bring reform to many aspects of French life. Inspired and motivated by the famous American Revolution, French citizens were urged to take action in orderRead MoreFrench Revolution Causes1139 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The French Revolution was not an event that happened overnight but rather a series of events that occurred over several years leading up to the overthrow of the monarchy and the implementation of a new government. The Primary cause for the fall of the Ancien regime was its financial instability and inability to improve upon the lives of the French people. The 4 key flaws or events leading to the fall of the regime was; the structure of royal government, the taxation system, the structure of french